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The Friar of Carcassonne: Revolt against the Inquisition in the Last Days of the Cathars

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The July Revolution, which led to the abdication of Charles X and establishment of the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe I. Justice. Assises de l'Aude : l'ex-président de Foncalieu jugé pour le viol présumé de deux salariées, du 14 au 17 novembre Having set forth their grievances, the Estates deputies left, and the focus fell on the upcoming Colloquy of Poissy.

Bagarre générale à Carcassonne : les images de la violente

In 1536 copies of John Calvin's Institution chrétienne were discovered in the city and the Reformed Church of France began to win converts, this despite Toulouse being the seat of Dominican Inquisition. [2] A strange sign of the success for the Reformed Church was when on September 10, 1538, Toulouse's Catholic Inquisitor of the Faith, Louis Rochette, was strangled and burned at the stake for embracing Protestantism. [2] By the 1540s the struggle between Catholics and Reformed Church members escalated in Toulouse. [2] The Reformed Church members continued their activities in Toulouse for decades despite legal and popular persecution (that sometime escalated into killing). [1] Though the Reformed Church had appeared later in Toulouse than in other provincial capitals (such as Lyon or Rouen), by 1561 they were holding their conventicles close to the Hôtel de Ville in the expensive homes of some of Toulouse's leading citizens. [4] Psalms in French [ edit ] Catholic suspicion over Protestant loyalty to France was heightened when staunchly Catholic Blaise de Lasseran-Massencôme, seigneur de Montluc arrived in Bordeaux in December 1561 to share the royal lieutenancy of Guyenne with Charles de Coucis, seigneur de Burie. There he discovered that the Reformed Churches in Guyenne had adapted the church structure of synods, colloquies, and consistories to build a Protestant military organization (Gueyenne had been divided into seven colloquies, where each church within it had its own military captain). [20] Monluc was offered a bribe of 40,000 écus to not oppose them. [20] Two chefs-général or "protectors" had been elected for each of the areas of the parlements of Bordeaux and Toulouse. There were fears that this organization was a planned attempt to turn Guyenne into a republic modeled after Geneva. [20]

February 1934 crisis, an anti-parliamentarist street demonstration in Paris organized by far-right leagues that culminated in a riot

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French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1km 2 (0.386sqmi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. These superior numbers did not always equate with easy success and more desperate tactics had to be used. Greengrass writes: "Catholics had particular difficulty in the rue des Couteliers and towards the Daurade church, an artisan quarter where Huguen Rodéo (riot), riots that consisted of stealing cars, driving them in tight circles, and ultimately burning them.a b Collins, Roger (1998). "Italy and Spain, 773–801". Charlemagne. Buffalo, London, and Toronto: Palgrave Macmillan/ University of Toronto Press. pp.65–66. doi: 10.1007/978-1-349-26924-2_4. ISBN 978-1-349-26924-2. Another bridge, Pont Marengo, crosses the Canal du Midi and provides access to the railway station. The Lac de la Cavayère has been created as a recreational lake; it is about five minutes from the city centre by automobile. Flour War, a wave of riots in April to May 1775, that followed an increase in grain and bread prices, because police withheld grain from the royal stores in addition to poor harvests.

Riots Are Different — and Far More Opinion | These French Riots Are Different — and Far More

Camisard Rebellion, a prolonged local guerrilla war by Protestants of the Cévennes region in the wake of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV. Both Francis, Duke of Guise and Anne de Montmorency were worried that the Royalty were converting to Protestantism. They were also faced with demands from the provincial states of the Isle of France that lavish sums which had been given to them by Henry II (who had died in 1559) be returned to help offset national debt. Drawn together by these mutual concerns they ended their traditional bitter rivalry, and on Easter, April 6, 1561, attended Catholic Mass together. Together they formed an alliance with leading military commander Jacques Dalbon, Seigneur de Saint Andre. Protestants would later give this partnership the name Triumvirate (likening their violent actions to those of the triumvirs Mark Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus in Ancient Rome). [18] In the end neither faith was pleased by the Edict of July, Protestants held that they had been deceived, Parlement held that the mitigations of the chancellor had weakened the wording they had supported. This resulted in the edict being only provisionally registered. [19] Because of the vigorous opposition of Protestant leaders during the crafting of the edict it largely remained a dead letter, [21] Gaspard II de Coligny was particularly outspoken in his opposition, saying that "to attempt thus to constrain the reformed to accept the Romans religion against their conscience was a great absurdity amounting to an impossibility." [17] Despite general dislike for the edict, Catholic Duke of Guise stated his support declaring that his "sword would never rest in its scabbard when the execution of this decision was in question." [3]Carcassonne was demilitarised under Napoleon Bonaparte and the Restoration, and the fortified cité of Carcassonne fell into such disrepair that the French government decided that it should be demolished. A decree to that effect that was made official in 1849 caused an uproar. The antiquary and mayor of Carcassonne, Jean-Pierre Cros-Mayrevieille, and the writer Prosper Mérimée, the first inspector of ancient monuments, led a campaign to preserve the fortress as a historical monument. Later in the year the architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, already at work restoring the Basilica of Saints Nazarius and Celsus, was commissioned to renovate the place.

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